Communication et culture.

La communication est différente selon la culture, un acte de communication est le fait d’émettre un message et de le recevoir, or, ce message arrive souvent déformé par des parasites très fortement liés au contexte culturel.

Il existe un phénomène de retour de ce message que l’on appelle la rétroaction ou le feed-back. C’est la perception de l’information qui peut différer selon la culture. Pour émettre un message, on doit utiliser un code, l’émetteur encode, le récepteur décode en traduisant et en interprétant les signes. Hors si le récepteur n’a pas les bons outils pour décoder le message, le récepteur ne peut pas comprendre le message. Les outils en question sont culturels, deux cultures différentes ne transmettent pas les mêmes outils à leurs membres.

Le contexte culturel agit également sur le contenu de la communication et sur la manière de communiquer. Il agit sur le fond du message et la forme qu’on va lui donner.

Il existe plusieurs aspects à la communication interculturelle :

– l’aspect culturel (que l’on soit français, américain, africain),

– l’aspect physique (le lieu où l’on est, ex : cinéma, église, cour de récréation,…),

– l’aspect social ou socio-psychologique (cadre formel ou informel),

– l’aspect temporel (la place de l’acte de communication dans une séquence d’événements, l’histoire personnelle et affective de quelqu’un ou le contexte historique collectif comme la Seconde Guerre mondiale).

La communication répond à des normes, ce sont des critères de conduite, c’est une forme de régulation sociale qui indique à l’individu le comportement à adopter en société. Elles s’appuient sur un consensus social (régulation sociale). Les normes varient d’un pays à l’autre, d’une culture à l’autre, d’une société à une autre ou d’une époque à une autre.

Aujourd’hui, les entreprises ne communiquent plus de la même manière que dans les années 40 par exemple. De la même manière, une multinationale ne communique pas de la même manière selon le pays, celle-ci s’adapte à la cible qu’elle vise. La publicité est un aspect de la communication professionnelle dans lequel nous pouvons le plus observer l’adaptation culturelle des messages. La culture est donc un aspect très important à prendre en compte lorsque l’on communique, que ce soit à des fins privées ou professionnelles car l’émetteur doit apprécier la capacité de compréhension du récepteur en fonction de sa culture.

1 produit > 3 cultures > 3 publicités

Certes les différence ne sont pas flagrantes mais pourtant elles y sont. La plus évidente est le changement d’égérie selon les pays. En fonction de l’origine de la cible à atteindre, les communicants s’adaptent. Ainsi, pour la Chine, l’égérie est asiatique, pour la France, celle-ci est de type caucasien et pour l’Inde il s’agit d’une Indienne. Mais ce n’est pas tout. Nous pouvons observer des différences au niveau de la mise en valeur du produit, on ne montre pas le produit le packaging dans la publicité Française. Aussi, l’utilisation des couleurs n’est pas la même, là où celle-ci va être très présente pour la publicité Indienne, elle va être plus discrète pour la Chinoise et quasi inexistante pour la Française. Nous trouvons aussi une différence au niveau de la présence du texte qui, pour la France, la publicité est très épurée de ce côté là. Ce sont tous ces détails qui font la différence sur les consommateurs visés car ces publicités ont fait l’objet d’études pour pouvoir plaire au maximum de gens dans les pays choisis.

Chine :

France :
Inde :


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